Color image of galaxy density map at 0.36 redshift from Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) from eROSITA. The white circles mark the location of the clusters of the eight galaxies that make up the new supercluster. Credit: Ghirardini et al. , 2020.

By analyzing data from the eROSITA Final Depth Equatorial Survey (eFEDS), an international team of astronomers discovered a new astronomical cluster. The newly discovered structure consists of eight galactic constellations. The discovery was reported in a paper published December 21 on the arXiv server prior to printing.

Superclusters contain various structures with a range of masses, from massive, dense galaxy clusters to low-density bridges, strings and plates of matter, and are among the largest structures in the known universe. Finding and investigating superclusters in detail may be essential to improving our understanding of the formation and evolution of large cosmic filaments.

Now, a group of astronomers led by Vittorio Gherardini of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany, reported the discovery of a new supercluster. Structure was determined by eFEDS scanning during the performance verification (PV) phase.

“We analyze 140 degrees2 Final eROSITA Scan of Equatorial Depth (eFEDS), observed during the performance verification phase to a nominal depth of approximately 2.3 ks. In this field we discover a previously unknown supercluster, “astronomers write in the paper.

A super cluster consists of a chain of eight Galaxy clusters At a redshift of 0.36. Observations show that the northern agglomerations of this structure are undergoing significant off-axis fusion activity. Optical and x-ray data indicate that it is a triple merging system with double fusion and pre-fusion.

The Cluster EFEDS classifier J093513.3 + 004746, residing in the northern part of the supercluster, is the densest and brightest of the eight. It is also one of the largest and brightest groups in the entire eFEDS industry. Its mass has been calculated at 580 trillion Solar masses.

The least dense clusters of this super cluster, eFEDS J093546.4-000115 and eFEDS J093543.9-000334, have masses of about 130 trillion solar masses. The remaining five groups are estimated to have between 140 and 250 trillion solar masses.

Moreover, the data revealed two pieces of radio remnants in the north and southeast region of the northern clusters and a long radio halo, which also supports the ongoing fusion activity scenario.

“The presence of a long radio halo linking radio remnants in eFEDS J093513.3 + 004746 and eFEDS J093510.7 + 004910 indicates that the cluster is undergoing a major fusion process. This is supported by an oceanographic map of galactic density showing two peaks in the northern and southern regions of the cluster system Astronomers explained.

Overall, the study indicates that the X-ray characteristics of the eight clusters that make up the new supermass are similar to those in the common eFEDS group. Moreover, their morphological characteristics are also consistent with a sample of more than 300 groups identified by eFEDS.

Radio remnants have been detected in a nearby galaxy cluster

more information:
Super cluster detection in the final eROSITA survey of equatorial depth: X-ray properties, radio halo, and dual effects, arXiv: 2012.11607 [astro-ph.CO]

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